Amber is a fossilised tree sap, scientifically classified as resin. Evidence suggests that Baltic Amber was produced by coniferous trees which existed in sub-tropical forests some 30-60 million years ago. This tree is called the Baltic Amber Pine or Pinus Succinifera. This species does not exist today. Tree sap needs at least 20 million years to become Amber. In this time the oil content is reduced, it becomes harder and turns into a polymer.
Amber is found in about 200 places throughout the world in many varied forms. Succinite, or Baltic Amber is the type used by the Polish people for making jewellery. This Amber is around 30-60 million years old. The largest known piece weighs 9.75 kilos and was found near Stettin in Poland in 1860. It now sits at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.
Amber has a hardness of 2-3 on Moh's scale.